In The News

Stay up-to-date with OC Hair Restoration and Dr. Williams by reading the latest news!


Patient Testimonials

Hear what patients are saying about their results and experience with OC Hair Restoration!


XoFlo™ Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes

XoFlo

Exosomal Treatment for Hair Loss

There are several sources of novel and cellular therapy for regeneration of hair follicles. Those sources include autologous cells originating from adipose and bone marrow. Another source of therapies includes placental cell-derived exosome products.

Exosomes

As a hair researcher, Dr. Ken Williams is involved in clinical trials with a novel exosomal therapy and product called XoFlo™ . XoFlo™ exosomes originate from placental derived mesenchymal stem cells.

They are purified using a proprietary filtration process. XoFlo™ are not cells but micorvessicles that contain no nucleus or DNA. It is viewed as one of the purest forms of cellular therapy available, as their function provides tissue stimulation and wound healing by triggering the patient’s own regenerative cells to become active.

Orange County Hair Restoration is a state-of-the-art hair restoration facility offering regenerative therapies for hair restoration. Dr Williams is a well-known hair surgeon practicing in Orange County, California. He is a Diplomate of the American Board of Hair Restoration Surgery (ABHRS), and a fellow of the International Society of Hair Restoration Surgery (ISHRS).

What can I expect from XoFlo™ Treatment

The safety and tolerability of the XoFlo™ is known, however, no scientific studies or case reports are available in hair restoration patients to determine efficacy of XoFlo™. This is a very new product that has great hope. No guarantee of success can be made with this FDA-approved product, and clinical responses to these medical therapies vary from one patient to another. Treatment for hair loss with novel regenerative therapies is exciting with safety and tolerability well-established, but efficacy studies still outstanding.

What Are Exosomes?

Exosomes are the latest generation of naturally bioactive amnion-based products for patient treatment of hair thinning and loss. Exosomes act as paracrine effectors, i.e., they have a role in signaling or stimulating nearby cells. The stimulating effect upon tissues and cells is caused by transferring biochemical stimulating contents from one cell to another. These messengers are termed exosomes and microvesicles, collectively known as extracellular vesicles (EVs).

How do they Work in Hair Stimulation?

Regenerative cells by nature work to heal, repair, stimulate, and restore cells and tissues. The hair follicle is susceptible and vulnerable to minturization by genetic and hormonal effects from DHT.

How are the MSC Extracellular Vesicles Injected into the scalp?

The tiny size of EVs allows for easy injection with local anesthesia into the superficial dermis of scalp. Common autologous scaffolds can be used such as HD- PRP or A-Cell™ because they assist in cell retention and cell migration. The procedure is performed in the same manner as other simple procedures done in our office such as HD- PRP injections.

Are there any Relative Contradictions?

  • Active Cancers
  • Myeloproliferative Disease
  • Bone Marrow Dysplasia
  • Sickle Cell
  • Primary Pulmonary Hypertension
  • Acute Bacterial Infection
  • Recent Dental Work
  • Macular Degeneration
  • Any abnormal neovascularization
  • Immunocompromised Disorders

Microvesicles and exosomes of mesenchymal stem cells provide very attractive therapeutic benefits. At the very core of these are their trophic (regenerative) and immunomodulatory capabilities which dictate their indications or use. The trophic effects of EVs requires an understanding of the resident stem cells they act upon. Tissue-resident stem cells lie quiescently or in a resting phase within the niche of the hair follicle. We have niches throughout our bodies.

This population of cells are partially undifferentiated and once activated can proliferate and migrate to sites of injury where they acquire a mature phenotype in order to facilitate repair, stimulation, and remodeling. The balance of progenitor cell quiescence and activation is a hallmark of a functional niche and is regulated by internal and external signals. Known niches are seen in the central nervous system, skeletal muscles, liver, skin, kidney, heart, lung, and joints.

Exosomes, the smaller of these two vesicles, measure 40 to 100 nm and are lipid membrane packets formed by a two-step budding process. Formed by inward budding of membranous vesicles in a multi- vesicular body, they fuse with the plasma membrane to release these ultra-tiny vesicles into surrounding cells. They do Not contain a nucleus or DNA.It is regarded as one of the purest forms of cellular therapy as they function to provide healing, scell stimulation, and regenerative effects
Micorvessicles are larger by a few hundred nanometers and are formed by budding directly from the plasma membrane. Both exosomes and microvesicles contain transmembrane proteins from their parent cells, which are important in regulating uptake by other cells. By conserving these transmembrane proteins, it has been shown that uptake is facilitated by other cells to a much greater degree than if the cargo was simply released into the extracellular environment. Exosomes and microvesicles are not exclusive to stem cells and are released by many cells throughout the body. Immune cells, cancer cells and aging cells all secrete different vesicles which contain vastly different cargos of information.

This information includes messenger RNAs, micro RNAs, and various proteins. The intrinsic durability of the extracellular vesicle membranes makes them uniquely durable and naturally biocompatible. Additionally, the wide spectrum of proteins and messenger RNA contained within these EVs allows for a vastly greater capacity of information compared with single molecule messengers like hormones , growth factors and cytokines. Finally, the transmembrane protein receptors allow EVs to traffic or home to areas of injury and inflammation while facilitating uptake by numerous cells.
EVs are important in autocrine signaling (local between same cells), paracrine signaling (local between different cells) and endocrine signaling (between distant cells). EVs have been found in all bodily fluids. EV cargos are specific to each type of cell, while cells grown in different environments will also modify their production of EV contents.

Commercially, at present, research grade purified EV solutions are only available from placental tissues whose MSCs secrete a cargo rich in growth and immunomodulatory substances. Of course, any resident stem cells who traffic to the areas of concern, will then secrete EVs specific to themselves and will be modified by their own local extracellular microenvironment. Much of the difficulty in bringing purified EVs to market is related to the scalability and standardization of the product. Similarly, concentrating the product to a physiologic level necessary to effect change has also proven to be a large obstacle for many companies and continues to be a significant barrier of entry into the marketplace. Variances of 0.1 to 2 mg of exosomes are isolated from cell numbers of up to 60 million MSCs.

Musculoskeletal – Joints, discs, muscles, bones, ligaments, tendons

Neurodegenerative – MS, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s, ALS, Cerebellar Ataxia

CNS Injury/Trauma – CVA, CTE, TBI, SCI, Transverse Myelitis, Cerebellar Ataxia

Burns/Scars/Ulcers

Heart Disease – MI, Angina, CHF

Lung Disease – COPD, Pulmonary Fibrosis, Interstitial Lung Disease

Liver Disease

Kidney Disease

Inflammatory Bowel Disease – Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn’s

Alopecia or Hair Loss

Neuropathy/CIDP

Erectile Dysfunction

Urinary Incontinence

Peripheral Vascular Disease

Cerebral Palsy/Seizure Disorders/Autism

Numerous Aesthetic Applications

Depression/Bipolar Disorder

Drug Addiction

Type II Diabetes Mellitus

Aging

MP5- Stimulates Bone Growth

GDF15- Regulates inflammation, apoptosis, cell repair, and growth

OPG- Stimulates Bone Growth/Blocks Osteoclast Precursor Formation

G-CSF- Stimulates Bone Marrow to Procedure Granulocytes and Stem Cells

SCF- Responsible for Stem Cell and Melanocyte Growth

TGFß3- Most Important Anti-Inflammatory Protein. Converts Inflammatory T Cells into Anti-Inflammatory Regulatory T Cells.

VEGF- Stimulates Formation of Blood Vessels

ICAM-1 Binds Inflammatory Ligands on White Cells

IL-1RA-Binds and Sequesters the Inflammatory Cytokine IL-1

IL-6-Responsible for Macrophage Activation

IL-10-Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine responsible for Immunomodulation and Regulatory T Cell Conversion

MCP-1- Recruits Mononuclear Cells to Treatment Area

MIP-1
-Also known as CC1-4, Recruits Mononuclear Cells to the Treatment Area

PDGF-BB-Growth Factor Used to Stimulate Healing in Soft and Hard Tissues

TIMP1 & TIMP2-Blocks Cartilage and Extracellular Matrix Degradation, Important for Cartilage Repair

HGF-Involved in Organ Regeneration and Wound Healing

GDNF & BDNF-Promotes Survival of Neurons

FGF-Potent Growth Factors Affecting Many Cells

TNFR1-Binds and Inactivates the Inflammatory cytokine TNF-α